Technology

Soil and Agriculture

Types of Soils in India 

1) Black (Regur Soils):

  • These types of Soils are mainly found in Deccan plateau – Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Valleys of Krishna and Godavari rivers.
  • These soils are formed by sedimentation of volcanic rocks and Lava flow.
  • These soils are rich in minerals like Potassium, Magnesium, Lime and Iron.
  • Phosphorous, Nitrogen and Organic matter are deficient in Black soils.
  • These soils are suitable for growing of crops like Sugarcane, Jowar, Cotton, tobacco, wheat, rice etc.

2) Alluvial Soils:

  • These types of Soils are mainly found in Great Northern plains like states of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, Jharkhand and in Lower valleys of Narmada and Tapi rivers.
  • They are formed by deposition of river sediments into the plains.
  • They are rich in humus content hence are very fertile.
  • These soils get renewed every year.
  • They are also rich in minerals like Potassium and Lime.
  • They are deficient in Nitrogen and Phosphorous content.
  • Crops such as wheat, rice, sugarcane, jute, cotton are grown in these types of soils.

3) Red Soils:

  • These soils are found in whole of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Konkan region of Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh and parts of Orissa.
  • These are formed by sedimentation of old metamorphic rocks.
  • The red colour is because of the Iron content in these soils. If Iron content is lower, then it is also green or yellow coloured.
  • These are rich in Iron and Potassium.
  • Humus, Nitrogen and phosphorous are deficient in these soils.
  • These soils are suitable for growing of pulses, wheat, rice, sugarcane, etc.

4) Laterite Soils:

  • These soils are present in states of Kerala, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh Tamil Nadu and hilly areas of Orissa and Assam.
  • This type of Soil formation is because of the high intensity leaching.
  • They are rich in Iron Oxide and Potash.
  • Organic matter, phosphate, calcium and Nitrogen are deficient.
  • These are suitable for growing of crops like Cashew nuts, Tea, Coffee, Rubber, etc.

5) Forest and Mountain Soils:

  • These types of soils are found in hilly regions covered with forests like Himalayan slopes, valleys and on higher hills of southern peninsula.
  • They are formed due to deposition of organic matter derived out of forest growth.
  • These are generally brown coloured soils
  • They are deficient in lime, phosphorous and potassium but are very rich in Humus content
  • These are Suitable for growing of Tea, Coffee, Spices and Tropical fruits

6) Arid and Desert Soils:

  • These soils are present in the arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana.
  • Sand cover in these regions inhibits the soil growth
  • The high presence of phosphate and nitrates makes these soils fertile, but only in the areas where moisture (rainfall) is present.
  • Drought resistant and Salt tolerant crops like millet, maize, barley, cotton and pulses can be grown in these soils.

7) Saline and Alkaline Soils:

  • These soils are found in drier regions of Haryana, UP, Punjab, Bihar, Rajasthan and Maharashtra.
  • They are formed because of the deposition of salts transported by rivers, which percolates to the sub soils of the plains.
  • These types of Soils are infertile due to high quantities of Salt content.
  • The infertility of the soil makes it unfit for agriculture.

Kharif Crops of India

Sown in summers between May & July, & harvested after the rains, in September & October.
Eg: Rice, Jowar, Bajra, Maize, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane, Tobacco, Groundnut, Pulses, etc.

Rabi Crops of India

Sown at the beginning of winter & harvested before the onset of the summer season, between Feb & April.
Eg: Wheat, barley, oilseeds, gram, potatoes, etc.

Zaid Crops

They are raised between April & June.
E.g. : Melon, watermelon, cucumber, toris, leafy & other vegetables.
Cash Crops of India (Commercial Crops)
Grown mainly for the market, only a small portion of the product is consumed by the farmers themselves (cotton,
sugarcane etc.)
CASH CROPS

  • Sugarcane In                UP, Maharashtra, Karnataka
  • Cotton In                      Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh
  • Jute & Mesta In          WB, Bihar, Asom
  • Tea In                            Asom, West Bengal, Himachal Pradesh
  • Coffee In                       Kamalaka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu
  • Rubber In                     Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka
  • Tobacco In                   Gujaral, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka
  • Silk In                           Karnataka, Jammu & Kashmir,Andhra Pradesh. In India all 4 varieties of silk are available: Mulberry, tussar, eri & muga. Mulberry is the main variety, while tussar is  mainly found in Bihar.

Jhum

Shifting type of cultivation practiced in the hill slopes of Asom, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram & Nagaland. In this, the trees are felled & set on fire. The ash of the burnt trees & the other vegetation adds to the fertility of soil. This land is used for 2-3 years till the soil gets exhausted & the jhum is abandoned.

Top Crop Producing States of India

Food Grains

Rice:
(1) West Bengal
(2) Uttar Pradesh
(3) Andhra Pradesh
(4) Punjab
 
Wheat:
(1) Uttar Pradesh
(2) Punjab
(3) Haryana
(4) Madhya Pradesh
 
Bajra:
(1) Rajasthan
(2) Gujarat
(3) Maharashtra
 
Jowar:
(1) Maharashtra
(2) Karnataka
(3) Madhya Pradesh
 
 
Maize:
(1) Andhra Pradesh
(2) Karnataka
(3) Rajasthan
 
Pulses:
(1) Madhya Pradesh
(2) Uttar Pradesh
(3) Maharashtra
(4) Rajasthan
 
Overall total food grains:
(1) Utter Pradesh
(2) Punjab
(3) Madhya Pradesh

Cash Crops

Sugarcane:
(1) Uttar Pradesh
(2) Maharashtra
(3) Karnataka
(4) Tamilnadu
 
Cotton:
(1) Gujarat
(2) Maharashtra
(3) Telangana
(4) Karnataka
 
Coffee:
(1) Karnataka
(2) Kerala
(3) Tamilnadu
(4) Andhra Pradesh
 
Tea:
(1) Assam
(2) West Bengal
(3) Himachal Pradesh
 
Silk:
(1) Karnataka
(2) Andhra Pradesh
(3) West Bengal
 
Rubber:
(1) Kerala
(2) Tamilnadu
(3) Karnataka
 
Tobacco:
(1) Andhra Pradesh
(2) Karnataka
(3) Gujarat

Oil Seed

Groundnut:
(1) Gujarat
(2) Andhra Pradesh
(3) Tamilnadu
 
Soya bean:
(1) Madhya Pradesh
(2) Maharashtra
(3) Rajasthan
 
Mustard:
(1) Rajasthan
(2) U.P.
(3) Haryana
 
Sunflower:
(1) Karnataka
(2) Andhra Pradesh
(3) Maharashtra
 
Overall total oil seeds:
(1) Madhya Pradesh
(2) Maharashtra
(3) Rajasthan

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