The Coming of the Arabs

  •  The Arabs were the first Muslims to cast their covetous eyes on India and attack it.
  •  Sind was ruled by a king named Dahir.
  •  Incensed by certain pirates of Debal, Al-Hajjaj, the governor of Iraq, sent Muhammad bin Qasim to punish the Indian king. In 712 AD, Dahir was killed near the fort Raor.
  •  Subuktagin attacked Jayapala, the Shahiya ruler, and succeeded in forcing the latter to conclude a humiliating treaty.
  •  After Subuktagin, Mahmud Ghazni became the king. In 1001 AD, he defeated Jayapala, who burnt himself in the funeral pyre.
  •  His main objective was to destroy Hindu temples and plunder the wealth of the country. He destroyed the morale of the Indian armies.
  •  Al-Beruni was in the court of Mahmud Ghazni. He came to India with his ruler and wrote the famous treatise Kitabul-Hind. Firdausi ( the author of Shahnama) and Utbi also adorned Ghazni’s court.
  •  Mahmud Ghazni died in 1030.
  •  Md. Ghori, the ruler of Ghor, a small principality in Afghanistan, laid the foundation of Muslim rule in India.
  •  He made his first invasion in 1175 AD.
  •  He then marched towards Gujarat in 1178 but Raja Bhimadeva II gave him a crushing defeat.
  •  He attached Delhi from the north-west region and met Prithviraj Chauhan in the First Battle of Tarain in 1191.

First Battle of Tarain       –         1191       –       Between Pr it hvir aj Chauhan and Mohd. Ghori
Second Battle of Tarain      –     1192       –       Between Pr it hvir aj Chauhan and Mohd. Ghori
Battle of Chandawar        –         1194       –      Between Jaichand and Mohd. Ghori

  •  Mohd. Ghori was defeated by Prithviraj in the First Battle of Tarain.
  •  Ghori never forgot his defeat, and in 1192 (Second Battle of Tarain), he marched once again against Prithviraj Chauhan at the invitation of Jaichand of Kanauj and defeated Prithviraj.
  •  In the Battle of Chandawar, Jaichand was defeated by Mohd. Ghori.
  •  Before leaving for his empire in Ghor, he left Qutbuddin Aibak as incharge of his possessions.