Important Amendments to the Constitution

1st Constitutional Amendment (1951)

  •  Right to equality, Right to liberty and Right to property were restricted in public interest.
  • The Land Reform Acts were put into Ninth Schedule to make them out of jurisdiction of the Courts.
  •  The sessions of legislatures, appointment of judges and provision of seats were also affected.

7th Constitutional Amendment (1956)

  • State reorganisation in 14 States and 6 Union Territories. Reallocation of seats in the House of the People, the Council of States and the State legislatures.
  • Provision for the appointment of acting and additional judges and jurisdiction of High Courts.
  •   Provisions for Union Territories.
  •   Special provisions for the States of Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, and Bombay.

15th Constitutional Amendment (1963)

  • Provision for the re-employment of the retired judge of the High Courts.  
  • Extension to the jurisdiction of the High Courts.

20th Constitutional Amendment (1966)

  • Provisions regarding appointment to District Judges.

27th Constitutional Amendment (1971)

  • Reorganisation of North-Eastern States.

42nd Constitutional Amendment (19) 

  •  It is also known as Mini Constitution. 
  • The words ‘Secular’, ‘Socialist’ and ‘Integrity’ added in the Preamble.
  •   The validity of the Constitutional Amendment can not be questioned in any Court – 368 (4) Extension of the Directive Principles of State Policy.
  •   Primacy given to the Directive Principles of State Policy over the Fundamental Rights.
  •   Fundamental Duties added.
  •   Restriction on the Fundamental Rights widened.
  •   The power of Judicial Review of the Courts was restricted.
  •   The duration of the House of the People and the Legislative Assemblies of the State extended to 6 years.
  •   Provisions were made for the participation of the workers in the management of industries.
  •   Provisions for the protection of environment, forests and wildlife.
  •   Provisions for the protection of the children and the youth against exploitation.
  •   No quorum shall be required for conducting the meeting of the House of the People and the Legislative Assemblies of the States.
  •   The Right of the Supreme Court to examine the validity of the laws of the State under Art. 32A abolished.
  •   The Jury System was given importance in the functioning of the Courts.
  •   The President shall be bound by the advice of the Council of Ministers.
  •   The Central Government was given the power to send Central Forces in any State or part of State to control the law and order in that State and the control of such forces shall rest with the Central Government.
  •   Emergency Provisions : (a) National Emergency may be proclaimed in a part of the Territory of India; (b) The one time duration of the President rule in a State under Art. 356 was extended from 6 months to one year. 
  • Some subjects — protection of the forest and the wildlife, education, weight and measures, population control and judicial administration — shifted to the Concurrent List.  
  • Provisions for the establishment of the administrative tribunals for public servants.

44th Constitutional Amendment (1978)

  • The Fundamental Right to Property was abolished.  
  • The term of the Lok Sabha and the Legislative Assemblies of the States reduced to 5 years.
  • The disputes relating to the qualifications of the members of the Parliament and the State Legislature shall be decided by the President and the Governors, respectively.  
  • The provisions regarding quorum in the legislatures was changed to as these were before the 42nd Amendment.
  • It was provided that disputes relating to the election of the President and the Vice-President shall be decided by the Supreme Court and those of the election of the member of the Parliament and the State legislature shall be decided by the High Courts.
  • A national emergency shall not be proclaimed except on the written recommendation of the cabinet.

52nd Constitutional Amendment (1985)

  •   It added Tenth Schedule of the Constitution containing the modes for disqualification in case of defection from the Parliament or State Legislature.

61st Constitutional Amendment (1988)

  •   The minimum age limit prescribed to get the Voting Right was reduced to 18 years from 21 years.

65th Constitutional Amendment (1990)

  • The National Commission for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes was given a Constitutional Status.

69th Constitutional Amendment (1991)

  •  The Union Territory of Delhi was named as the National Capital Territory of Delhi. It also provided for a 70-member State Assembly for Delhi.     

73rd Constitutional Amendment (1992)

  •   Provisions relating to the Constitution, elections, finance and functions of the Panchayati Raj bodies.

74th Constitutional Amendment (1992)

  •  Provisions relating to the Constitution, election, finance and functions of the municipalities.

75th Constitutional Amendment (1994)

  • Provisions for the establishment of a Special Administrative Tribunal for the speedy disposal of the disputes between the householders and the tenants. 

83rd Constitutional Amendment (2000)  

  •  It provides that no reservation in Panchayats need to be made in favour of the Scheduled Castes in Arunachal Pradesh wholly inhabited by the tribal population.

84th Constitutional Amendment (2001)

  • Creation of the new States of Chhattisgarh, Uttaranchal and Jharkhand.

85th Constitutional Amendment (2001)

  • It provided for consequential seniority in the case of promotion by virtue of rule of reservation for the Government Servants belonging to the SCs & STs with retrospective effect from June 1995.

86th Constitutional Amendment (2002)

  •   It made elementary education a fundamental right for the children of age of 6 to 14 years.
  •   It changed the subject matter of Art. 45 in Directive Principles.
  •   It added a new Fundamental Duty under Art. 51 A.

87th Constitutional Amendment (2003)

  • It provided for the readjustment and rationalization of territorial constituencies in the States on the basis of the population figures of 2001 Census and not 1991 Census.

88th Constitutional Amendment (2003)

  • It made a provision for service tax by inserting Art. 268A. Taxes on services are levied by the Centre but their proceeds are collected as well as appropriated by both the Centre and the States in accordance with the principles formulated by the Parliament.

89th Constitutional Amendment (2003)

  •  It bifurcated the National Commission for SCs and STs into two separate bodies, namely National Commission for SCs (Art. 338) and National Commission for STs (Art. 338 A)

90th Constitutional Amendment (2003)

  •  It provided for maintaining the erstwhile representation of the STs and non STs in the Assam Legislative Assembly from the Bodoland Territorial Areas District [Art. 332(6)].

91st Constitutional Amendment (2003)

  •  The total number of ministers including the Prime Minister in the central Council of Ministers shall not exceed 15% of the total strength of the Lok Sabha [Art. 75 (1A)]. 
  • A member of either House of Parliament belonging to any political party who is disqualified on the ground of defection shall also be disqualified to be appointed as a minister. [Art. 75 (1B)].
  • The total number of ministers including the Chief Ministers in the Council of the Ministers in a State shall not exceed 15% of the total strength of the Legislative Assembly of that State. But the number of ministers including the Chief Minister in a State shall not be less than 12 [Art. 164 (1A)].
  • The provision of the Tenth Schedule (Anti-Defection Law) pertaining to exemption from disqualification in case of split by 1/3rd members of the legislature party has been deleted. It means that the defectors have no more protection on grounds of splits.

92nd Constitutional Amendment (2003)

  • It included four more languages in the eighth Schedule, viz. Bodo, Dogri (Dongri), Mathilli (Maithili) and Santhali. With this, the total number of constitutionally recognised languages increased to 22.

93rd Constitutional Amendment (2003)

  • It impowered the State to make special provisions for the socially and educationally backward classes or the SCs or STs in educational institutions including private educational institutions (whether aided or unaided by the State), except the minority educational institutions [clause (5) in Art. 15].