Civil Rebellions and Tribal Uprisings (1757-1900)

Sanyasi Revolt

  •  The British government imposed restrictions on visits to holy places by Sanyasis. The Sanyasis retaliated by organizing raids on the Company’s factories. This revolt was contained by Warren Hastings.

Ho Uprising

  •  The Ho and Munda tribesmen of Chhotanagpur challenged the Company’s forces and the area remained disturbed till 1837.

Kol Mutiny (1831)

  •  The Kols of Chhotanagpur, under the leadership of Budho Bhagat, revolted against the large-scale transfer of land from Kol headmen (Mundas) to outsiders like Sikh and Muslim farmers.

Kandh Uprising (1837-56)

  •  The Kandhs retaliated under Chakra Bisoi against the British efforts to put an end to the Kandh practice of human sacrifice (Mariah).

Santhal Uprising (1854)

  •  The Santhals of Rajmahal Hills under Sidhu and Kanhu Murmu rose up against the oppression by revenue officials, police, moneylenders, landlords and outsiders (Diku). A separate district of Santhal Parganas was created by the Government to pacify the Santhals.

Ahom Revolt (1828)

  •  The British attempt to incorporate the Ahom territories in the Company’s dominion sparked off a rebellion under the leadership of Gomdhar Konwar.
  •  Finally Government handed over Upper Assam to Maharaja Purandar Singh Narendra and part of the kingdom was restored to the Assamese king.

Khasi Uprising

  •  The East India Company wanted to build a road linking the Brahmaputra valley with Sylhet. For this purpose a large number of labourers from the plains were brought to the hilly region between Garo and Jaintia.
  • The Khasis, Garos, Khamptis and Singhopos organized themselves under Tirath Singh to drive away the strangers. The rising was suppressed by the British by 1833.

Pagal Panthis (1825-40)

  •  Karam Shah was the founder of the Pagal Panth, a semireligious sect.
  •  Tipu, the politically motivated son of Karam Shah, captured Sherepur in 1825 and assumed royal power.

Faraizi Revolt (1838-1857)

  •  The Faraizis were the followers of a Muslim sect founded by Haji Shariat-Ullah of Faridpur in Eastern Bengal. He organized his followers with an aim to expel the English intruders from Bengal.

Munda Revolt

  •  The Mundas of Chhotnagpur rose under Birsa Munda against the intrusion of jagirdars, thikadars (revenue farmers) and moneylenders. The revolt was also known as “Ulgulan”.

Bhil Uprising

  •  The Bhils of Khandesh revolted under the leadership of Sewaram in 1817-19 against the East India Company, fearing agrarian hardships under the new regime.

Cutch Rebellion (1819)

  •  The British interfered in an internal matter and disposed the Cutch ruler Rao Bharamal in favour of his infant.
  •  Rao Bharamal reorganized the revolt against the British to recapture the power.

Ramosi Uprisings (1822-1829)

  •  The Ramosis hill tribes of the Western Ghats rose under Chittur Singh and plundered the country around Satara to overthrow the British pattern of administration.

Revolt of Raja of Vizianagaram

  •  The East India Company demanded a tribute of three lakh rupees from the Raja and also asked him to disband his troops. The Raja supported by his subjects rose up in revolt.

Poligars Revolt

  •  The Poligars of Dindigal and Malabar rose up against the oppressive land revenue system under the British during 1801-06.

Rampa Revolt

  •  The tribesmen of Rampa in coastal Andhra revolted in March 1879 against the depredations of governmentsupported Mansabdar and the new restrictive forest regulations.

Kuka Revolt

  •  The Kuka Movement was founded in 1840 by Bhagat Jawahar Lal (also called Sian Saheb) in western Punjab. After the British took the Punjab, the movement transformed from a religious purification campaign to a political one.